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This article is to be referred to as David T. Runia, "References to Philo from Josephus up to 1000 AD," Studia Philonica 6 (1994): 111-121 ©
References to Philo
from Josephus up to 1000 AD

David T. Runia

From the very first edition of Philo's complete works it has been customary to include a list of ancient witnesses to Philo that can be gathered from the remains of ancient and early medieval literature. The editions of Mangey and Cohn-Wendland both give quite lengthy lists of passages in which reference was made to Philo.1 The first of these witnesses is the Jewish author Josephus. The remainder are all Christian sources, as we all know,it was in the Christian tradition that Philo was preserved and transmitted. Various additional references are also given in the monographs of Siegfried and Conybeare, and there is a rather undigested compilation of relevant material in the bibliography of Goodhart and Goodenough.2 So far,however,there has never been an attempt to compile a complete list of references to Philo in the ancient and medieval sources. In my recent monograph on Philo in Early Christian Literature I decided to include such a list in an Appendix.3 This list contained a number of omissions and errors. So it seemed worthwhile to publish a second, corrected version of the list as an instrument of research for readers of this Annual.

This list contains all those passages in which Philo is referred to by name. In addition references are also given to texts in which Philo is referred to in anonymous terms, in phrases such as ‘some say’or ‘one of my predecessors said’ (these occur rather frequently in Patristic exegesis). Inclusion of these anonymous references is necessary somewhat arbitrary and incomplete. Such references are marked by a tilde (~)(in orig mss it is a dagger). Full details on the texts where the reference is found are not given, but these
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can be easily found through consultation of various reference works.4 I have tried in each case to use the most recent edition available. A very brief summary of the contents of the reference is given (it would take up too much space to include the texts entire). The authors included in the list are presented in approximate chronological order. Some attempt has been made to include references to Philo outside the Latin and Greek tradition, notably in works preserved in Syriac and Armenian.5  Cut-off point is the date 1000 ad. This date is of course quite arbitrary, and there are a considerable number of subsequent references to Philo in Byzantine and Medieval Latin literature. But we have to stop somewhere, and the competence of the compiler is already being stretched to the limit.

Finally I indicate in square brackets behind each reference if it has been included in earlier lists of testimonia. The lists of Mangey and Cohn are still useful because they print the texts involved (though often in outdated versions). The key used to indicate earlier lists is as follows:

T = A. Turnebus, Philonis Iudaei in libros Mosis, de mundi opificio, historicos, de legibus; eiusdem libri singulares (Paris 1552): Peri tou Filwnoj (pages unnumbered)

V = Vulgate edition (Turnebus–Hoeschelius–Gelenius), Philonis Ioudaei omnia quae extant opera, published in various forms in 1613, 1640, 1691, 1729: Illustrium et praecellentium scriptorum de Philone testimonia (pages unnumbered).

M = T. Mangey, Philonis Judaei opera quae reperiri potuerunt omnia, 2 vols. (London 1742): Veterum testimonia de Philone Judaeo (xxi–xxix).

C = L. Cohn and P. Wendland, Philonis Alexandrini opera quae supersunt, 6 vols. (Berlin 1896–1915): Testimonia de Philone eiusque scriptis (1.lxxxxv–cxiii, compiled by Cohn).

Since the sources that refer to Philo are widely scattered throughout diverse linguistic and literary traditions, the present list no doubt contains omissions and in due course will have to be supplemented by new discoveries. For the present time, however, it is as complete as I can make it, except in the case of the Armenian tradition.
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list of references

Josephus (37– c. 100)

Antiquitates Iudaeorum 18.8.257–260, 4.186 Niese:  Philo, leader of the Embassy of Alexandrian Jews to the Emperor Gaius  [VMC] Clement of Alexandria (c. 150– c. 215) Stromateis 1.31.1, 20.5 Stählin:  etymologies of Hagar and Sarah [M?C]

Str. 1.72.4, 46.17:  Philo the Pythagorean gives many proofs that Jewish philosophy is more ancient than Greek philosophy [M?C]

Str. 1.141.3, 87.25:  on the kings of Judah (mistaken reference6) [MC]

Str. 1.152.2, 95.16:  on the education of Moses as reported in the De vita Moysis [M?C]

Str. 2.100.3, 168.2:  on great natures hitting on the truth [M?C]

Canon Muratorianus (c. 160–200) fol. 2a.7–9, = lines 69–71:  Wisdom of Solomon written by Philo (if Tregelles’ emendation is accepted) Origen (c. 185–254) Contra Celsum 4.51, 314.30 Borret SC7:  Origen’s opponent Celsus must be referring to the allegories of Philo and Aristobulus [MC]

C. Celsum 5.55, 152.18:  allegorical exegesis of daughters of men (Gen. 6:2) in terms of souls desirous of bodies~

C. Celsum 6.21, 232.17:  Philo composed a book about Jacob’s ladder (i.e. Somn.) [MC]

C. Celsum 7.20, 60.5:  the Law as two-fold, literal and figurative~
Selecta in Genesim 27, PG 12.97C:  the six days in creation account for the sake of order (cf. Opif. 13, 26–28)~

Sel. in Genesim 44, PG 12.129D:  on Pharaoh the fauloj who, attached to genesis, celebrates his birthday (cf. Ebr. 208)~ (perhaps paraphrase of Comm. in Matt. 10.22)

Homiliae in Exodum 2.2, 74.3ff. Borret SC:  on the Jewish midwives, exegesis Ex. 1:17 (cf. Her. 128)~

Hom. in Leviticum 8.6, 34.9ff. Borret SC:  on the colour of the leper, exegesis Lev. 13:14–15 (cf. Deus 125)~

Hom. in Numeros 9.5, 61.8 Baehrens:  ethical interpretation of the alive and the dead, exegesis Num. 17:13 (cf. Her. 201)~

Hom. in Josua 16.1, 358.1 Jaubert SC:  presbyters in scripture determined not by length of years (cf. Sobr. 17) ~

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Hom. in Jeremiam 14.5, 74.26 Nautin SC:  the wise man complains to Sophia, exegesis Jer. 15:10 (cf. Conf. 49)~

Commentarii in Matt. 10.22, 10.30.5 Klostermann-Benz:  on Pharaoh the fauloj who, attached to genesis, celebrates his birthday (cf. Ebr. 208)~

Comm. in Matt. 15.3, 10.354.30 :  according to Philo it is better to be a eunuch than to rage after sexual intercourse (citation of Det. 176) [MC]

Comm. in Matt. 17.17, 10.635.16:  on the principles of anthropomorphic language concerning God~ [MC]

Comm. in Matt. frag. ad 25:31–34, 11.163.16:  on the exegesis of Gen. 1:2 (cf. Opif. 32ff.)~

Comm. in Joh. 6.42.217, 151.16 Preuschen:  on the descent of souls into bodies, exegesis Gen. 6:2~

Pseudo-Justin Cohortatio ad Graecos (between 220 and 300) §9.2, 34.21 Marcovich:  the ‘most wise historians’ Philo and Josephus on Moses as ancient ruler of the Jews [MC]

§10.1, 36.8:  Philo and Josephus on the life of Moses [MC]

§13.4, 41.29:  translation of the LXX is no myth, the author has seen the translators’ cells himself and is corroborated by Philo and Josephus [MC]

Anatolius of Alexandria, bishop of Laodicaea (died c. 280) cited at Eusebius HE 7.32.16:  evidence of Philo on the date of Easter [C] Peter, bishop of Alexandria (sedit 300–311) and his opponent, the Montanist Tricentius cited at Chronicon Paschale PG 92.73B-C, 76B:  appeal to ancient Hebrew sages on the Paschal question~ Eusebius of Caesarea (c. 260–339)8 Chronicon ad Ol. 203, 213 Karst:  Philo of Alexandria, a learned man, was prominent

Chr. ad Ol. 203, 213 Karst, 176.15–18 Helm:  Sejanus attempts to destroy the Jewish people, as recorded in Philo’s Legat.

Chr. ad Ol. 204, 214 Karst, 177.18 – 178.3 Helm:  Flaccus descrates the Jewish synagagues at Alexandria, impelling Philo to undertake the embassy [MC]

Chr. ad Ol. 204, 214 Karst 178.17–20 Helm:  statues of Gaius placed in synagagues, as Philo and Josephus report

Historia Ecclesiastica preface to book 2, 100.20 Schwartz:  this book put together from writings of Clement, Tertullian, Josephus, Philo

HE 2.4.2–6.4 :  Philo introduced and then used as a source for events during the reign of Caligula [TVMC]

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HE 2.16.2–18.8:  Philo as a source for the first Christians in Egypt, as witness in his De vita contemplativa; inventory of Philo’s writings [TVMC]

HE 6.13.7:  Clement refers to Philo in his Stromateis

HE 7.32.16:  extract from Canons of Anatolius on the date of Easter, referring to the evidence of Philo and other Jewish authors (see also above under Anatolius) [C]

Praeparatio Evangelica 1.9.20 Mras: Eusebius indicates that he means Philo of Byblos, not ‘the Hebrew’

PE 7.12.14—13.7:  texts from Philo quoted to prove biblical basis for the ‘theology of the second cause’ [M]

PE 7.17.4–18.3:  again Philonic text used to interpret biblical doctrine, this time on the nature of man

PE 7.20.9–21.5:  Philo quoted on the subject that matter is not uncreated (agenhtoj)

PE 8.5.11–7.21:  quotes from Philo’s Hypothetica on the flight from Egypt and the Mosaic constitution [M]

PE 8.10.19–12.20:  quote from same work and Prob. on the Jewish ascetic way of life exemplified by the Essenes [M]

PE 8.12.21–14.72:  extracts from Opif. on creation and Prov. 2 on providence to illustrate Jewish theology [M]

PE 11.14.10–15.7:  repetition of Philonic material on the second cause [M]

PE 11.23.12–24.12:  quotes from Opif. on the Mosaic (and Platonic) theory of ideas

PE 13.18.12–16:  quotes from Spec. 1 on the Mosaic injunction not to worship the heavenly bodies

Demonstratio evangelica 8.2.123, 390.5 Heikel:  Philo’s evidence on Pilate and the episode of the Golden shields (Legat. 299) [M]

Eusebius of Emesa (c. 300–359) Frag. in Catena in Genesimad Gen. 2:6, no. 194 Petit:  citation of fragment from QG 1.3 on how ‘spring’ can be understood collectively Didymus the Blind (313–398) Commentarii in Genesin 118.24, 119.2, 19 Nautin SC:  exegesis Gen. 4:1–2, allegorization of Cain and Abel

Comm. in Gen. 139.12:  exegesis Gen. 4:18, Philo is invoked as useful source of information for etymologies (cf. Post. 66–75)

Comm. in Gen. 147.17:  exegesis Gen. 5:3–5, Philo again useful source if one wants a mustikoj logoj for names and numbers

Comm. in Gen. 235.28, 236.8:  exegesis Gen. 16, Philo gives a different allegorical interpretation than Paul for Sarah and Hagar

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Commentarii in Ecclesiaten 276.19–22 Gronewald:  exegesis of Eccl. 9:9a recalls Philo’s interpretation of Hagar in Gen. 16

Comm. in Eccl. 300.15 Gronewald:  exegesis Eccl. 10:7–8, citing Philo’s life of Moses on philosophers as kings (cf. Mos. 2.2)

Comm. in Eccl. 356.10–14 Binder-Liesenborghs:  exeg. Eccl. 12:5 on the special nature of the almond tree (cf. Mos. 2.186)~

Commentarii in Zacchariam 320.6–9 Doutreleau:  sword in Zach. 11:17 recalls oracle to Abraham in Gen. 12:1, which is given an allegorical interpretation~

Epiphanius (c. 315–403) Panarion (Adv. Haer.)–3 Holl:  One may learn more about the Iessaioi from the historical writings of Philo, who visited the early Christians at Lake Mareotis [MC] Basil of Caesarea (c. 330–379) Ep. 3.190, 74.23 Deferrari LCL:  Philo interprets manna as if drawing on a Jewish tradition [MC] Gregory of Nyssa (c. 338– c. 395) Contra Eunomium cap. 9.1, 1.16.20 Jaeger9: Eunomius’ doctrine of God draws on Philo

C. Eun. 3.5.24, 2.168.17: Eunomius glues together a rag-bag of statements, for which Philo supplies some material

C. Eun. 3.7.8–9, 2.217.19–218.3: further explanation of Eunomius’ theft from Philo

De vita Mosis 2.113, 67.22 Musurillo:  a literal justification of the spoliatio Egyptiorum is rejected~

Vita Mos. 2.191, 98.15:  some predecessors have regarded the blue of the high priest’s tunic as symbolizing the air~

De infantibus praemature abreptis 77.23–78.23 Horner:  man created so that the earth would not be bereft of intelligence~

Calcidius (floruit 350 (?)) Commentarius Timaei 278, 282.8 Waszink:  Philo interprets the heaven and earth in Gen. 1:1 in terms of ideas and compares them with the creation of archetypal man before corporeal man Ps. Chrysostom (homily dated 387) In sanctum Pascha sermo 7.2, PG 59.748: the Hebrew sages Philo and Josephus assure us that Easter must take place after the spring equinox [MC]
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Ambrose (339–397)10 De Paradiso 2.11, 271.8–272.2 Schenkl:  exegesis of Adam and Even in terms of nouj and aisqhsij

Par. 4.25, 281.19–282.5:  exegesis Gen. 2:15, man’s double task in Paradise; Philo as a Jew only gives a moral interpretation [MC]

De Cain et Abel 8.32, 367.2 Schenkl:  the Word is not God’s product (opus) (cf. Philo), but is himself producing (operans)~

De Noe 13.43–44, 441.8–21 Schenkl:  exegesis Gen. 7.4, rain for forty days and nights refers allegorically to man and woman~

Noe 14.47, 445.9–16:  exegesis Gen. 7:15, the double divine name~

Noe 15.52, 449.26:  our predecessors on the 15 cubits of Gen. 7:20~

Noe 17.63, 459.1–6:  exegesis Gen. 8:15, water as the force of the passions~

Noe 26.99, 482.17:  on the exegesis of the repetition of ‘God’ in Gen. 9:6~

De Abrahamo 2.11.83, 634.14 Schenkl:  a question raised by the seemingly excessive death sentence in Gen. 17:14~

De fuga saeculi 4.20, 180.12 Schenkl:  the etymology of Bethuel~

Rufinus (c. 345– c. 410) Historia Ecclesiastica 2.4–6, 2.16–18 Mommsen:  Latin translation of Eusebius’ work (see above) Jerome (347–420) Adversus Iovinianum 2.14, PL 23.317A:  Philo has written a book on the Essenes

Chronicle, translation of Eusebius: see above under Eusebius

Commentarius in Amos 2.9 CCL 76.238.314:  etymology of Esau as meaning ‘oak’

Comm. in Amos 3.6, CCL 76.304.182:  on the seven ages of life (cf. Opif. 103ff.)

Commentarius in Danielem 1.1.4a, CCL 75A.779.60:  Philo thinks the language of Hebrews was Chaldean [MC]

Commentarius in Hiezechielem 4.10b, CCL 75.171.1160:  Philo on the hyacinth of the high-priestly robes (cf. also 8.7, 75.362.850)

De viris illustribus 11, 96.5 Ceresa-Gastaldo:  brief biographical notice, together with list of writings (Philo also briefly mentioned in §8.4 on the apostle Mark, §13.2 on Apion) [VMC]

Dialogus adversus Pelagianos 3.6.62, CCL 80.106.62:  on the seven ages of life

Epistulae 22.35.8, CSEL  Philo reports on sober meals of the Essenes at Pentecost [M]

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Ep. 29.7.1, CSEL  Philo as interpreter of high priestly vestments [M]

Ep. 70.3.3, CSEL 54.1.704.12:  Philo, whom critics call the Jewish Plato, cited in discussion of sound usage of pagan learning [M]

Liber interpretationis Hebraicorum nominum, praefatio, CCL 72.1, 59.1–60.3 Philo according to Origen author of a book of Hebrew etymologies (incompletely cited in C-W) [MC]

Prefatio in librum Iob PL 28.1141APhilo as one of the witnesses to fact that Hebrews composed poetry (cf. Contempl. 80) [MC]

Praefatio in libros Salomonis, PL 28.1308A:  some consider Philo to be the author of the Wisdom of Solomon [M]

Hebraicae Quaestiones in Genesim 17:15, CCL 72.21:  Sarah’s name-change by doubling the R is erroneous11

Theodore of Mopsuestia (c. 350–428) Treatise against the Allegorists, CSCO.SS 190, p. 14.27–16.5 Van Rompay:  Origen goes astray in learning the allegorical method from the Jew Philo Augustine (354–430) Contra Faustum 12.39, CSEL 25.366, PL 42.274:  Philo goes astray in his allegorical exegesis of Noah’s ark because he does not take Christ into account [MC] Isidore of Pelusium (c. 370– c. 435) Epistulae 2.143, PG 78.585–589:  unlike other Jews Philo was moved by the Truth to gain some idea of the orthodox doctrine of God as one substance and three hypostases [MC]

Ep. 2.270, PG 78.700C:  Philo one of the sages who use mhpote in the sense of iswj or esq ote; [MC]

Ep. 3.19, PG 78.746A–B:  the Jewish affirmation that the lawgiver only spoke literally is refuted by Philo who converts nearly the entire Old Testament into allegory [C]

Ep. 3.81, PG 78.788C–D:  quotation from Philo proves that there are beneficent passions [MC]

Orosius (c. 378– after 418) Historiae adversus paganos 7.5.6–7, 445.12 Zangemeister:  Philo’s embassy before Caligula fails Maruta of Maipherkat (flor. c. 410) Canons III, CSCO.SS 192 p. 9 Vööbus:  order of monks had different name in Old Covenant, as testified in Letters prepared by Philo for James, brother of the Lord
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Pseudo-Prochorus (flor. 400–450) Acta Johannis 110.6–112.11 Zahn:  Philo has an altercation with the Apostle John, but is converted after John heals his wife from leprosy Julian of Eclanum (386– c. 454) at Augustine Contra secundam Juliani responsionem opus imperfectum 4.123, PL 45.1420:  unless one should think that the Hebrews Sirach or Philo, who are thought to be authors of the Wisdom of Solomon, are Manichees Theodoret of Cyrrhus (c. 393– c. 466) Quaestiones in Exodum 24 PG 80.251A:  Philo interprets Pascha as crossings (diabathria) [MC] Salaminius Hermias Sozomen (c. 400– c. 460) Ecclesiastical History 1.12.9–11, 26.4, 18 Bidez-Hansen:  Philo describes the beginnings of the monastic movement [MC]

Eccl. Hist. 7.18.7, 328.11 Bidez-Hansen:  Anatolius on Philo on the Easter question (taken over from Eusebius HE 7.32.16, see above)

Catena in Genesim, Catena in Exodum (end 5th century) Numerous exegetical extracts from Philo under the headings Filwnoj episkopou, Filwnoj Ebraiou, Filwnoj.12 Procopius of Gaza (c. 465– c. 529) Extensive, always anonymously presented exegetical extracts from QG and QE in Commentary on the Octateuch, PG 87~ Cassiodorus (487– c. 580) Institutiones divinarum litterarum PL 70.1117B:  Jerome right in attributing the Wisdom of Solomon to Philo [M] Johannes Lydus (490– c. 565) De mensibus 4.47 103.14–104.1 Wuensch:  Philo in his Life of Moses writes of his Chaldean origin and the fact that his books were written in Hebrew Anonymous Armenian translator of Philo’s writings (c. 550) Praefatio in libris Philonis De providentia, p. vii–xi Aucher: lengthy notice on Philo’s life and description of translated works [C] Isidore of Seville (c. 570– 636) Etymologiae 6.2.30:  Philo and the Wisdom of Solomon
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Barhadbsabba Arbaya, bishop of Halwan (c. 600) Cause of the Foundation of the Schools, 375.6–376.4 Scher:  Philo the Jew was Director of the School of biblical exegesis in Alexandria13 Anastasius Sinaïta (c. 610– c. 700) Duae Viae 13.10.1–96, CCG 8.251 Uthemann:  cites Ammonius of Alexandria who cites a dialogue between Philo and Mnason, in which Philo attacks the divinity of Christ [C] Chronicon Paschale (c. 650) PG 92.69A:  quotes Mos. 2.222–224 on the vernal equinox and the Passover feast [M] Ananias Shirakatzi (c. 650) Armenian Easter treatise, containing extensive reference to Philo’s interpretation of Ex. 12:2, p. 126–127  Strobel14 Ps.Sophronius (7th century) Ierwnumou epistolh proj Dectron (= Greek translation of Jerome, De viris illustribus) 12, 21, 23 von Gebhardt [C] John of Damascus (c. 675– c. 750) Prol. in Sacra Parallela, PG 95.1040B, 1044B:  Philo (and Josephus) are cited, even though they are Jews, because they can make a valuable contribution [MC] Beda Venerabilis (c. 673–735) In Marci evangelium praefatio, CCL 120.431:  citation from Jerome on the beginnings of the church of Alexandria George Syncellus (died after 810) Ecloga chronographica 399.5, 402.14, 19 Mosshammer:  Philo on the reign of Gaius (taken from Eusebius) [M] Anonymous Syrian commentator of the works of Gregory of Nazianzus (8th–9th century) ms. London, Brit. Libr. Add. 17,147, fol. 98a and 144a: some quotations are found from other writers, among them two quotations from ‘Philo the Hebrew’ Is]oÑdad de Merv (c. 850) Commentary on Exodus 23:19, 56.5 van den Eynde:  Philo is cited on the injunction not to boil a lamb in its mother’s milk (cf. Virt. 143–144)

Commentary on Numbers 7:11, 120.28 van den Eynde:  on the phases on the moon and the ten sacrifices (cf. Spec. 1.177–178)

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Freculphus, Bishop of Lisieux from c. 825 to 851 Chronicon 2.1.11, PL 106.1126:  On Philo and the fate of the Jews under Gaius [M] Photius, bishop of Constantinople (c. 820–891) Bibliotheca 103–105, 2.71–72 Henry:  record of Philonic works read, with critical comments added, to which a biographical notice is appended [VMC] George the Sinner (or the Monk) (c. 830– c. 890) Chronicon 9.4 1.324.17 de Boor:  in the reign of Gaius Philo and Josephus, the Hebrew sages, were prominent Anastasius incertus (9th century) In hexaemeron 7, PG 89.961D:  Philo among those Church fathers who allegorized paradise in terms of the church [C] Arethas, archbishop of Caesarea (c. 850– c. 940) Commentary on the Apocalypse 1, PG 106.504D: on the Hebdomad [MC] Anonymous compiler of Nestorian exegesis (10th century (?)) Exegesis Psalmorum 29.1 Vandenhoff:  Philo as ‘spiritual philosopher’ in a long list of exegetes Souda (c. 1000) 1.10.14 Adler:  s.v. Abraam, Philo’s book on the life of the politikoj will testify to Joseph [M]

1.18.32:  on the term agalmatoforoumenoj [M]

1.472.3:  on the term bioj (reference mistaken, actually Eusebius, Suppl. min. ad quaest. ad Marinum PG 22.1008)

2.146.9:  s.v. dunamij, two powers enter into every soul [M]

2.655.3:  in the notice on Josephus it is mentioned that Apion accused Philo

2.698.27:  s.v. Qeoj, an extract from Isidore of Pelusium Ep. 2.143 on Philo’s doctrine of God (see above under Isidore) [M]

2.705.29: s.v. qerapeutai, Philo’s account mentioned and name explained [M]

4.737–8: s. v. Filwn, biographical notice. with list of writings [TVCM]15

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